Preface: This article has been written with the intent of looking into humankind's history through the legacy of the Patriarch Abraham and some of the messengers that followed. The search for the actual Mohammed will take us to several locations in the Middle East, ending with conclusions that are quite different from today’s perceived history.

Over 1,400 years ago a new 'Scripture' was introduced to the World which re-confirmed man's covenant with God and re-introduced the laws of God that were similarly revealed to Abraham, Moses and Jesus.

This Scripture was known as the ‘Quran,’ and its recipient (an Arab speaker) was to spread the word to all regions - starting with his own.

“And this is a Scripture which We have sent down, blessed, authenticating what is present with him, and that you may warn the capital of the towns and those around it. And those who believe in the Hereafter believe in it, and they are dedicated to their contact-method.” (Qur'an 6:92)

This new Prophet was Mohammed (see Qur'an 48:29) , and in this article we will attempt to separate 'Myth' from 'Reality' and piece together the correct narration of where he lived, and where he preached, from the Scripture itself...

Picture of the Prophet Mohammed's Tomb located in Medina - Saudi Arabia


Part I - History of Messengers.

The revelations in the Scripture serve to provide us with much information about communities of the past and about their lives without which we would be left fumbling for information.

“We relate to you the best stories through what We have inspired to you in this Quran; and before it you were of those who were unaware.” (Qur'an 12:3)

1. Noah.

The first history we are given in the Quran after our father Adam is the prophet Noah with the incident of the Great Flood. This was the time when all civilization on Earth was simply 'wiped-out' and man-kind had to start again.

“They denied him (Noah), so We saved him and those with him in the Ship, and We drowned those who denied Our revelations; they were a blind people.” (Qur'an 7:64)

Thus, the slate was wiped clean.

“So We saved him (Naoh) and the people on the ship, and We made it (the Ark) a sign for the worlds.” (Qur'an 29:15)

Although there is debate as to whether the flood was local or global, the implications of a global flood would place the history of Noah many millions of years back in Earth`s history (see link on Noah and the Great Flood).

2. 'Aad - People of Hud.

After Noah's community, the next nation that we hear about from the Scripture being established is that of ‘Aad (Hud is there messenger).

Hud tells his people:

“Are you surprised that a reminder has come to you from your Lord through a man from amongst you to warn you? And recall that he made you successors after the people of Noah, and He increased you in status. So recall God’s grace, that you may succeed.”  (Qur'an 7:69)

“As for ‘Aad, they turned arrogant on Earth, without any right, and they said: “Who is mightier than us in strength?” Did they not see that God, who created them, was mightier than they in strength? And they were denying Our revelations.” (Qur'an 41:15)

This indicates to us that although other people may have been roaming the Earth, ’Aad was a power unto its own which earned them the status of a nation and earned them the right to be sent a messenger (only nations large enough to have capitals are sent messengers 28:60).

Ø Their Punishment:

“Consequently, We sent upon them violent wind, for a few miserable day, that We may let them taste the humiliating retribution in this life, and the retribution of the Hereafter is more humiliating; they can never win.” (Qur'an 41:16)

3. 'Thamud' - People of Saleh.

The next in the line of Nations are the people of 'Thamud'.

“And recall that He made you (Thamud) successors after ‘Aad, and He established you in the land so that you make palaces on its plains, and you carve homes in the mountains. So recall God’s grace, and do not roam the Earth as corrupters.” (Qur'an 7:74)

In the above verse, it is made clear to us that Thamud were taking their homes in the mountains and the flat of the Valley.

Ø Their Punishment:

“And ‘Aad and Thamud (were annihilated). Much was made apparent to you from their dwellings. The devil had adorned their works in their eyes, thus he diverted them from the path, even though they could see.” (Qur'an 29:38)

Recent evidence suggests that Thamud were located in the area of north west Syria where the remains of a giant camel have been found in accordance with the sign that the messenger Saleh brought to his people (see link on Saleh and Thamud).

4. Abraham.

Now that we have seen the development of nations after Noah, we will move on to the story of Abraham in which many developments take place.

Ø Abraham leaves the town he lived in due to his people idolatry;

“And he (Abraham) said: “You have taken idols besides God in order to preserve some friendship among you in this worldly life. But then, on the Day of Resurrection, you will disown one another, and curse one another. Your destiny is Hell, and you will have no victors.” (Qur'an 29:25)

Ø Abraham is shown the location of God's 'House';

“And We have appointed to Abraham the location of the House: “Do not set up anyone with Me, and purify My House for those who will partake, and those who will enforce, and those who kneel and prostrate.” (Qur'an 22:26)

Ø The House is in a ‘blessed land’ also called 'Bekka';

“The first House established for the people is the one in Bakk’a, blessed, and a guidance for the worlds.” (Qur'an 3:96)

Ø Abraham with Ismail raise the foundations of the House;

“And as Abraham raised the foundations for the House with Ishmael: “Our Lord accept this from us, You are the Hearer, the Knowledgeable.” (Qur'an 2:127)

Ø The House is declared for Pilgrimage;

“The Safa and Marwa are amongst God’s symbols. So whosoever makes Pilgrimage to the Sanctum, or is merely passing through, commits no error that he should traverse them. And whoever donates for goodness, then God is Appreciative, Knowledgeable.” (Qur'an 2:158)

Ø One of Abraham's progeny `Zuriya` resides in another area near a "prohibited" House:

“Our Lord, I have resided part of my progeny (Zuriya) in an uncultivated valley near Your prohibited House. My Lord, so that they may uphold the Salat. So let the hearts of the people incline towards them and give provisions to them of the fruits that they may give thanks.” (Qur'an 14:37)

It is believed that the land in which Abraham settled was Palestine, and that the House that he and his son helped raise was none other than the Dome of the Rock - where tradition has it that Abraham was about to sacrifice his son on the stone outcropping situated within the Dome.

A photo of the Rock within the Dome

In-fact, when looking for referenced to Bakka, we can still find within the pages of the Bible clear verses that link Bakka with the area of Jerusalem and Mt. Zion:

"Blessed are they that dwell in thy house: they will be still praising thee. Selah. Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee; in whose heart are the ways of them. Who passing through the valley of Baca make it a well; the rain also fills the pools. They go from strength to strength, every one of them in Zion appears before God. O Lord God of hosts, hear my prayer: give ear, O God of Jacob. Selah. [Psalm 84:4-8]

The name `Bakka` has been retained in ancient scriptures and is the given as the name of the area which is reached as pilgrims exited the valley of Rephaim from the south west that led to mount Zion in the heart of Jerusalem (Samuel 5:22-23).

In-fact, the name Bakka is still retained for that very same area that approaches the heart of Jerusalem from the south west:

The area of the south west in a map of Jerusalem is still named "Bakka" (click map to enlarge)

5. Lot.

Before moving on to Mohammed, it is important to bring one more character into the history, that of the messenger Lot.

Ø Lot emigrates with Abraham;

“Thus, Lot believed with him and said: “I am emigrating to my Lord. He is the Noble, the Wise.” (Qur'an  29:26)

Ø Lot is from Abraham's progeny;

"And such was Our argument that We gave Abraham over his people; We raise the degree of whom We please. Your Lord is Wise, Knowledgeable. And We granted him Isaac and Jacob, both of whom We guided; and Noah We guided from before; and from his progeny `Zuriya` is David, and Solomon, and Job, and Joseph, and Moses, and Aaron. It is such that We reward the good doers. And Zachariah and John, and Jesus, and Elias; all were from the upright. And Ishmael and Elisha and Jonah and Lot; and each We have preferred over the worlds." (Qur'an 6:83-86)

This is the part that most Muslim scholars totally missed, although in Christian and Jewish scriptures there is recognition of a blood relation between Abraham and Lot (Lot is recognized as Abraham's nephew).

We bring this matter to light so as to emphasize that the "progeny" mentioned in 14:37 which was made to reside near God's "prohibited " House may very well have been Lot (and not Ismail as is commonly thought). 

Ø Lot settles around a  community which turns wicked:

“And Lot, when he said to his people: ‘You commit a lewdness that no others in the world have done before! You sexually approach men, and you commit highway robbery, And you bring all vice to your society.’ But the only response from his people was to Say: “Bring us God's retribution, if you are being truthful!” (Qur'an 29:28-30)

Ø The town of Lot  is near/on an established path:

“And it (town of Lot) was on an established path. In that is a sign for the believers.” (Qur'an 15:76-77)

Ø The people of Lot rebel and are destroyed:

“He said: “Here are my daughters if it is your intention.” By your life, they are in their drunkenness, blundering. So the scream took them at sunrise. Thus We turned it upside down, and rained upon them with fiery projectiles.” (Qur'an 15:71-74)

“They said: “O Lot, we are your Lord’s messengers; they will not be able to harm you, so travel with your family during the cover of the night and let not any of you look back except for your wife, she will be afflicted with what they will be afflicted. Their appointed time will be the morning. Is the morning not near?” (Qur'an 11:81)

Ø A remnant from Lot's town is left standing as a 'Sign':

“And We left remains of it as a clear sign for a people who understand.” (Qur'an 29:35)

“And We have left in it a sign for those who fear the painful retribution.” (Qur'an 51:37)

Where Was Lot’s Town?

With regards to the location of the town of Lot (Sodom & Gomorrah), it is generally viewed that the area around the ‘Dead Sea’ in Jordan/Palestine is where the historic events took place. However, this information is based on hearsay and cannot be considered as being conclusive.

Some of the clues we are given about the location of Lot include:

  1. The town of Lot was on an established path (15:76-77);
  2. The town had a House of God established in it;
  3. The town was destroyed by a meteor shower (15:74, 11:82)
  4. A sign has been left from the ancient town for all to see (51:37, 29:35);

Keeping to the vicinity of the Middle East, this would keep us looking to the trade routes that existed prior to the revelation of the Qur'an - primarily the Egyptian Trade Routes as well as the King's Highway (dating back to several thousand years). 


Ancient Egyptian Trade Routes 


Part II - Mohammed

Now that we have looked at the sequences and clues with regards to the previous messengers, it is time to move on to the seal of the prophets, Mohammed:

“And if Our revelations are recited to them, they Say: “We have listened, and if we wish, we could have said the same thing. This is nothing but tales of the ancients!” And they said: “Our god, if this is the truth (this Quran) from You, then send down upon us a rain of stones from the sky or bring on us a painful retribution.” But God was not to punish them while you (Mohammed) are with them, nor will God punish them while they continue to seek forgiveness. And why should God not punish them when they are turning others away from the Restricted Temple, and they were never its protectors! Its protectors are the righteous; but most of them do not know. And their Salat at the shrine was nothing but noise and aversion. Taste the retribution for what you have rejected.” (Qur'an 8:31-35)

"And you pass by them (the town of Lot) in the morning; And in the night. Do you not comprehend?" (Qur'an 37:137-138)

Here we have a number of conclusive points which need to be looked at:

Ø Revelations are newly being revealed through Mohammed (8:31);

Ø Their was a House of God at this location/place (8:34-35);

Ø Mohammed is living amongst the remains of the people of Lot (37:137-138);

Taking all the previous information into account, this would mean that Mohammed began his mission in the town of Lot, which the Qur'an calls by the name "Mecca".

Mecca = Remain's of Lot's Town!

This is where the Qur'an and established history begin to part ways. The Qur'an places Mohammed in the location of the town of prophet Lot (Mecca), while the Sunnis and Shia place Mohammad in the town of the prophet Abraham (Bakka) and the place of the annual pilgrimage...

We have already stated that the town of Lot was on a trade route (in-line with the Qur'an's narration that the tribe of Quraish were traders who would venture out in winter and summer trade caravans (see 106:1-4).

We also know from the Qur'an that Mohammed lived in an Arabic speaking town, which would place him anywhere in the Arabian Peninsula on the trade route that was influenced by the Nabataen Civilization (the originators of the Arabic language).

"the Aramaic-speaking Nabataeans created a new writing form to add to those in use in the Middle East of their day. They developed a running "cursive" or semi-ligatured script, which was used for both lapidary inscriptions and more common graffiti. This writing form would later evolve into the "Arabic" writing still in use today." (source)

“We have sent it down an Arabic compilation, perhaps you will comprehend.” (Qur'an 12:2)

§         Mohammad's people are associated with worshipping female god’s named ‘Allat, Uzzah, and Manaat’ in addition to the main deity Allah - a feature prevalent with Nabataen culture.

“Have you considered Allaat and Al-`Uzzah? And Manaat, the third one?” (Qur'an 53:19-20)


Allat (found at the temple of the winged lions) & Uzzah (found carved at Nabataen sites) (see link)

(http://todacosa.com/petra/aep /temple-winged-lions.htm).


Part III - Mohammed Emigrates.

This is where the Qur'an and the traditions come back in sync: Mohammed's emigration.

After preaching the message of God to his own community in Mecca; and after finding much resistance and oppression...Mohammed Emigrates from his home after all attempts to establish a 'God Alone Community' are met with failure and defeat.

“And many a town was stronger than your own town, which drove you out. We destroyed them, and there was none who could help them.” (Qur'an 47:13)

Ø The Migration/Hijra:

“O prophet, We have made lawful for you the wives to whom you have already given their dowry, and the one who is committed to you by oath, as granted to you by God, and the daughters of your father's brothers, and the daughters of your father's sisters, and the daughters of your mother's brothers, and the daughters of your mother's sisters, of whom they have emigrated with you. Also, the believing woman who had decreed herself to the prophet, the prophet may marry her if he wishes, as a privilege given only to you and not to the believers. We have already decreed their rights in regard to their spouses and those who are still dependant. This is to spare you any hardship. God is Forgiver, Merciful.” (Qur'an 33:50)

“God has pardoned the prophet and the emigrants and the supporters that followed him in the darkest hour, even though the hearts of some of them nearly deviated, but then He pardoned them. He is towards them Compassionate, Merciful.” (Qur'an 9:117)

We can clearly read that Mohammed (and his followers/supporters & family members) all emigrated from their town of Mecca to another location ...

Ø Yathrib:

The place where we are told Mohammed emigrated was known as 'Yathrib':'

“And a group of them said: “O people of Yathrib, you cannot make a stand; therefore, retreat.” And a small party of them sought permission from the prophet, saying: “Our homes are exposed,” while they were not exposed. They just wanted to flee.” (Qur'an 33:13)

Ø Bakka/Jerusalem is still Mohammed's Focal Point.

“The first House established for the people is the one in Bakk’a, blessed, and a guidance for the worlds.” (Qur'an 3:96)

Although Mohammed has been evicted, he is still upholding the focal point of the Temple in Jerusalem…This would explain why the Sunnis and Shia record until today that the prophet did indeed face Jerusalem for the first part of his stay in Medina (as evidenced by the mosque with two qiblas) and why they still call Jerusalem the ‘1st qibla’.

Ø The Medina/Yathrib Expansion:

During his time in Yathrib, Mohammed and his followers were forced into a number of conflicts which gave them governance over lands/areas they had previously not been involved with.

“And He inherited you their land, their homes, their money, and lands you had never stepped on. God is able to do all things.” (Qur'an 33:27)

“And recall when you were but a few who were weak in the land, you were fearful that men might capture you. But He sheltered you, and He supported you with His victory, and He provided you with good provisions, so that you may be thankful.” (Qur'an 8:26)

Ø Financial Growth & Development:

“You should know: “Of anything you gain, that one-fifth shall go to God and the messenger, and the relatives, and the orphans, and the poor, and the wayfarer.” You will do this if you believe in God and in what We revealed to Our servant on the day of the Criterion, the day the two armies clashed. God is able to do all things.” (Qur'an 8:41)

Ø Military Strategy & Experience:

It was during this ‘Yathrib Campaign' that it would seem most of the warfare' verses were revealed (4:77, 47:20, 2:217).

“And prepare for them all that you can of might, and from the steeds of war, that you may instil fear with it towards God’s enemy and your enemy, and others beside them whom you do not know but God knows them. And whatever you spend in the cause of God will be returned to you, and you will not be wronged.” (Qur'an 8:60)


Part IV – The Qibla is Changed!

This is perhaps the most monumental change that occurred during the life of Mohammad, and for which the repercussions are still with us today...

 Ø God Establishes a new Focal Point (Qibla):

“The foolish from amongst the people will Say: “What has turned them away from the focal point that they were on?” Say: “To God is the east and the west, He guides whomsoever He wishes to a straight path.” (Qur'an 2:142)

Again, we have a sync between the Qur'an and the traditions on this subject, as it is related that when the prophet came to Medina/Yathrib, he set the focal point of prayer towards the North East (towards Jerusalem), and that after a period of time he set it in the opposite direction.

The Mosque in Medina* with the two focal points (Qiblas) seen above (one towards Jerusalem, and one opposite)

* This has been re-built by the Saudi Royal Family during the last 40 or so years.

Ø Why Change to a New Focal Point?

Establishing a new 'Focal Point' (or Qibla) has precedence in the Quran and was done during the time of the Exodus when Moses and his companions were on the run from Pharaoh and needed to face towards the direction where their enemy would come from during their Salat.

“And We inspired to Moses and his brother: “Let your people leave their homes in Egypt, and let these homes be your focal point (Qibla) and uphold the contact-method. And give good news to the believers.” (Qur'an 10:87)

As for Mohammed's people...it was a 'test' of sorts:

“And as such, We have made you a balanced nation so that you may be witness over the people, and that the messenger may be witness over you. And We did not make the focal point that you became on except to distinguish who follows the messenger from those who will turn on their heels. It was a great thing indeed except for those whom God had guided; God was not to waste your belief. God is Merciful and Compassionate over the people.” (Qur'an 2:143)

That the major sects of today's Islam can all agree that a) there was a change in Qibla, and b) that the first Qibla was Jerusalem, begs to ask the more obvious questions:

  1. If Mecca was the place where Abraham raised the first House of God, and if this was the center for Pilgrimage, then why would Mohammed and his followers have given their backs to Mecca and faced Jerusalem BEFORE the change in Qibla instructions were given?
  2. Why do the Jews and Christians acknowledge Jerusalem, but have no history or clue about Mecca (assuming it was the center for pilgrimage since Prophet Abraham)?
  3. What benefit do the Sunnis and Shia have in promoting (to this day) that Jerusalem was the 1st qibla when they are clearly obsessed with the mosques of Mecca and Medina?

The reason for the above questions and the obvious doubt that is being placed on Mecca’s authenticity is not due to any secret conspiracy or hidden agenda, but is due to the existence of evidence in the Scripture which has been totally ignored by the masses.


Part V – The Fight with Rome!

Another turning point in the history of early Islam was the fight with Rome, who were situated to the North of Yathrib (in the area of the Levant). That a small nomadic army would pick a fight with the mightiest empire on Earth at the time makes no sense whatsoever - unless we reflect on the importance of Bakka/Jerusalem and realize that the holy city is under Roman occupation and is surrounded by Roman garrisons & legions. 

Ø Rome was to be fought!

This was a prediction of the inevitable battle against an organized and well trained army...The results as we shall see were quite disastrous.

“Say to those Nomads who lagged behind: “You will be called on to fight a people who are very powerful in warfare, unless they surrender. Then if you obey, God will grant  you a good reward, but if you turn away as you turned away before, He will punish you with a painful retribution.” (Qur'an 48:16)

Ø Roman Victory, Muslim Loss;

“The Romans have won*, at the lowest point** on the Earth. But after their victory, they will be defeated. In a few more years. The decision before and after is for God, and on that day the believers will rejoice.” (Qur'an 30:2-4)

* Most translation have made a mistake in the vowels of 30:2-4 thinking (or making us think) that Rome was 'Defeated' then 'Won'.  They claim that the reason the Muslims ‘rejoiced’ during the victory of Rome was because it was a war between Rome and Persia, and the Muslims rejoiced that Rome had won since Rome was a Christian nation and thus closer to their beliefs. This explanation is nonsense due to: a) there is no room for a 3rd party to be included in the verse context (Persia?), and b) Christianity with its trinity and son of God teachings is closer to paganism than monotheism (the heavens shake from such claims!). We should also keep in-mind that original Arabic was written with no vowel marks, thus by simply looking at the context, and switching the vowel markings, then we can see that the proper context becomes Rome ‘winning’ and then ‘losing’ at which point the Muslims rejoice - which makes a world of sense.

**Note that the 'lowest part of the earth' is a dead giveaway that the battle was fought near the Dead Sea as it is the lowest body   of water  on Earth, lying 408 meters  (1,340 feet)  below  sea level.

The battle where Rome defeated the Muslims could be the archeologically supported "Battle of Mutah" of 629 A.D. In this first major battle between the Muslims and Rome, the Muslim army was decimated with a retreat called to save as many lives as possible. The battle has been  reported as follows:

“One hundred thousand Roman soldiers, sent by the Roman king were armed to teeth with war equipment. They were also skilled at various war methodologies. They formulated contingents of six thousand soldiers, each called a "Legion". The Legion was divided into thirty groups, each of which was called "Manipool". Each Manipool consisted of two hundred soldiers. This was further subdivided into two groups each with one hundred soldiers and was called "Century". All the Roman soldiers wore steel helmets and armour. Their shields were large and their spears and swords extraordinarily long. They were also familiar with the formation of flanks.

The commander of the Islamic army, Zayd bin Harith zealously said, "We have come to fight in the way of Allah, if we kill the enemy for victory, Paradise is our reward. The same is ours if we die and are defeated. Only those fear the enemy numbers who lack Faith in the hereafter. Why should we be afraid of the numbers of the enemy?" These words of Zayd bin Harith induced rejuvenation among the Muslims and they became prepared for the battle. " (http://www.usf.edu.pk/wyw-35.html)

Mut'ah is located just south of Karak, near the Dead Sea

The results of the battle of Mut’ah (according to history) were disastrous for the Muslim army. Zeid and a large number of his comrades were killed, while the leadership of the army fell by default to Khalid Bin Al-Waleed who, in the face of defeat, called for an immediate retreat of all remaining fighters/soldiers. The remains of some of the most prominent figures who took part in the battle of Mut’ah are still found at that location:

"The most important companions of the Prophet buried in Jordan include: Zeid ibn al-Haritha; Ja’far bin Abi Talib (cousin of the Prophet and elder brother of Ali, who was the husband of the Prophet’s daughter Fatima and the father of al-Hassan and al-Hussein); Abu ‘Ubaydah ‘Amer Ibn al-Jarrah (one of the "Blessed Ten" companions promised Paradise); Mu’ath bin Jabal (the Prophet’s governor in Yemen); Shurhabil bin Husna (the Scribe of the Qur’anic Revelation), and Dirar bin al-Azwar (a great general). In fact, many more companions of the Prophet are buried in Jordan." (http://www.kinghussein.gov.jo/tourism7.html)

Above is the tomb of *Zeid as well as other reported companions of the prophet buried at Mutah.

*It should be mentioned that 'Zeid' (the prophet's adopted son) is one of the few people mentioned by name in the Scripture (33:37)


Part VI – Recapture of Mecca, Second Battle With Rome

Ø Mecca is  liberated:

Before the end of Mohammad's prophethood, it would seem that a military thrust was made against Mecca to recapture the city, and that this action faced very little resistance.

"And He is the One who withheld their hands against you, and your hands against them in the interior of Mecca, after He had made you victorious over them. God is Seer of what you do. They are the ones who rejected and barred you from the Restricted Temple, and barred your donations from reaching their destination. And there had been believing men and women whom you did not know, and you may have hurt them, and on whose account you would have committed a sin unknowingly. God will admit into His mercy whomever He wills. Had they become separated, We would then have punished those of them who rejected with a painful retribution." (Qur'an 48:24-25)

This was a fullfilment of Mohammad's vision, in which he saw himself and the Muslims enter the prohibited Temple, with their heads shaved for battle...

“God has fulfilled with truth His messenger's vision: “You will enter the prohibited Temple, God willing, secure, with your heads shaven and shortened, having no fear.” Thus, He knew what you did not know, and He has coupled with this a near victory.” (Qur'an 48:27)

And this would be followed by another, soon to occur, victory.

Ø Muslim Victory; Roman Loss.

“The Romans have won, at the lowest point on the Earth. But after their victory, they will be defeated. In a few more years. The decision before and after is for God, and on that day the believers will rejoice.” (Qur'an 30:2-4)

In fulfillment of God’s promise, and in confirming the truth of the prophecy, the Muslim army once again set out to battle mighty Rome. This event was most likely the 'Battle of Yarmouk' which took place in 636 A.D, just 7-years after the disastrous "Battle of Mutah" in 529 A.D.


At the end of this glorious victory against an Empire, the original House of God was made open to all people for the first time in many centuries, and the pilgrimage was once again called to thank the One true God for His gifts of life to humankind... 

Ø The prophet foretold in the 'Scriptures' has finally come to pass:

“And when Jesus, son of Mary, said: “O children of Israel, I am God's messenger to you, authenticating what is present with me of the Torah and bringing good news of a messenger to come after me whose name will be ‘most acclaimed.’ But when he showed them the clear proofs, they said: ‘This is clearly magic’” (Qur'an 61:6)

Ø And the prayer of Abraham has been answered...

“Our Lord, and send amongst them a messenger from among themselves, that he may recite to them Your revelations and teach them the Scripture and the wisdom, and purify them. You are the Noble, the Wise.” (Qur'an 2:129)


Part VII - Questions/Misc.

Ø       Bekka/Jerusalem - How Was it Forgotten?

One of the most alarming points raised in this article is how the city of Jerusalem and home to Abraham and many prophets in-between lost its significance and became of secondary importance for the people who claimed to be followers of the last prophet!

There are three main reasons that may be viewed as being factors in this historic confusion:

1.        The change in the Qibla;

“The foolish from amongst the people will Say: “What has turned them away from the focal point that they were on?” Say: “To God is the east and the west, He guides whomsoever He wishes to a straight path.” (Qur'an 2:142)

2.       God’s decree that allows interference with the delivery of His Message;

“We have permitted the enemies of every prophet, human and Jinn devils, to inspire in each other with fancy words in order to deceive. Had your Lord willed, they would not have done it. You shall disregard them and their fabrications. That is so the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter will listen to it, and they will accept it, and they will take of it what they will.” (Qur'an 6:112-113)

3.        The Muslim civil wars after Mohammed;

Multiple conflicts had arisen after the death of Mohammed, with the main ones being between the followers of Ali (the prophet's nephew) and the followers of Muwawiya. These conflicts culminated in a number of battles, with some exchange taking place between the occupiers of Jerusalem and the occupiers of Mecca (see siege of Mecca).  

Ø       Were there Structures Preceding the Dome of the Rock;

Since the location of God’s Temple is deemed to be that where the current Dome of the Rock stands, then it should stand that the structure (or its foundation) must have existed on this site since the time of Abraham?

Research shows that indeed the Dome of the Rock has ancient foundations carrying the same octagonal shape as seen in the infra-red photo below.  

Infra-red image showing ancient foundation for the Dome of the Rock.

It should be noted that all sites were centered around the outcropping rock, also known as the ‘holy of holies’ in Jewish tradition.

Ø What of the Safa & Marwa and other sites at Mecca?

“The Safa and Marwa are amongst God’s symbols. So whosoever makes Pilgrimage to the House, or is merely passing through, commits no error that he should traverse them. And whoever donates for goodness, then God is Appreciative, Knowledgeable.” (Qur'an 2:158)

The traditional stories are that the Safa and Marwa are two stone outcroppings in Mecca between which Hajar (Abraham's servant wife) was running to and fro looking for drinking water for young Ismail which was merely a babe at the time...

The entire story of ‘Abraham marrying his slave girl Hajar and then leaving her in the wilderness with Ismail based on the wishes of his wife Sarah’ not only has no basis whatsoever in the Book of God, but also conflict greatly with the character of a Prophet who is devoted to God and who would never be pressured by any human into abandoning or harming another person(s). As far as we can ascertain, Abraham was married to one woman, the same woman who gave him Ismail and then, many years later, Isaac. 

With regards to Jerusalem, if we are looking for two rock outcroppings, then they are easily located. The rock that resides inside the” Dome of the Rock” as well as the rock that resides under the “Dome of Tablets” are both located on the Temple area and appear to be of significance to the site.  


Images of the Rock outcropping in the Dome of the Rock and the Dome of Tablets

Ø What of the ‘People of the Elephant’

“Have you not seen what your Lord did to the people of the elephant? Did He not cause their schemes to go astray? And He sent upon them formations of birds in flight. Striking them with fiery projectiles. Until He turned them like devoured hay.” (Qur'an 105:1-5)

The traditions carry a story that, before the birth of Mohammed, God sent birds to destroy the elephant army of Abraha, who had journeyed all the way from Africa (Habasha) to destroy the temple at Mecca since it was competing with his call for an organized religion.

This tradition is very relevant as the projectiles dropped by these "birds" are the same exact projectiles used to destroy the people of Lot (fiery projectiles):

“Have you not seen what your Lord did to the people of the elephant? Did He not cause their schemes to go astray? And He sent upon them formations of birds in flight. Striking them with fiery projectiles. Until He turned them like devoured hay.” (Qur'an 105:1-5)

“They said: ‘O Lot, we are your Lord’s messengers; they will not be able to harm you, so travel with your family during the cover of the night and let not any of you look back except for your wife, she will be afflicted with what they will be afflicted. Their appointed time will be the morning. Is the morning not near?’ So when Our command came, We turned it upside down, and We rained on it with hardened fiery projectiles.” (Qur'an11:81-82)

 “Thus We turned it upside down, and rained upon them with fiery projectiles.” (Qur'an 15:74)

It would thus appear that the traditions, by accident, are once again are supporting the Quran's narration which places the town of Lot and the people of Mecca in one and the same place - with the only error being the intended target and timeframe of the attack. 


Ø       Israel and the Temple (Jerusalem);

“And We decreed to the Children of Israel in the Scripture, that you will make corruption twice on Earth, and that you will become very high and mighty.” (Qur'an 17:4)

A prophecy has existed in the Scripture that did not begin to materialize until this last century...The Children of Israel were destined to regroup and gain strength and influence in the world (as began in 1948).

However, this prophecy is very bad news for the Children of Israel as it will conclude with their humiliation and complete defeat at the hands of a people who will retake God’s Temple.

“If you (Children of Israel) do good, then it will be good for you, and if you do bad, then so be it. But when the promise of the second time comes, they will make your faces filled with sorrow and they will enter the Temple as they did the first time, and they will strike down all that was raised up.” (Qur'an 17:7)

Which Temple is being referred to here?

The Zionists have taken physical control of Jerusalem and its Temple since 1967 and are working continually to make it their capital. Unless the Zionists plan to physically move on Mecca – Arabia, then it is safe to pronounce that this Jerusalem Temple is the one that will be liberated as its was the first time during the prophet’s fight with Rome centuries ago.


Questions to be Asked.

If, as a Muslim, you totally reject the above article as being preposterous or made-up, regardless of the physical evidence that has been presented, then please ask yourself the following questions:

  1. Why did the early Muslims according to the evidence conduct the Salat facing Jerusalem (1st Qibla) if Mecca was the location for God’s Temple?
  2. Why is there a clear contradiction in the Sunni/Shia traditions whereby they claim that Mohammed only faced Jerusalem for about 18 months after arriving to Medina (i.e. until 624 A.D. which corresponds to his 2nd year of the Hijra), yet they neglect to mention that Jerusalem was also his qibla for the 12 previous years since he apparently declared his messengership in 610 A.D?
  3. Why does Islamic tradition hold that the Prophet journeyed to Jerusalem before his ascension to heaven during the ‘night journey’?
  4. Since you believe that Abraham (and Ismail) raised the foundations of the Kaaba in Mecca, then why do the faiths after Abraham (Jewish & Christian) not acknowledge that Abraham traveled as far south as Mecca or that their pilgrimage was to that area?
  5. Why does God speak of “figs & olives” in association with the Temple (see 95:1) while figs and olives are native to the Mediterranean area (Jerusalem), but not to the region of Mecca Arabia?
  6. Do you accept the physical evidence that the Arabic language as revealed in the Scripture is a product of the Nabataens who were dominant in the Jordan/Palestine area?
  7. Can you find Mecca - Arabia as being on any ancient trade map, or recorded as a center for pilgrimage or major religious activity before the 7th century A.D?
  8. Do you believe the remains of Lot's town are near the town of Mecca - Arabia, or, are they nearer to the town of Jerusalem?
  9. Why is the rock outcropping (which is attributed as “Maqam Ibrahim”) located inside the Temple at Jerusalem (as per the description given in 3:98) while the “Maqam Ibrahim” in Mecca is located outside the shrine/temple conflicting with the description given in the Scripture?
  10. Why was Mohammed adamant on facing the mighty Roman (Byzantium) army to the North. Did the Roman's hold something dear to make him take such a risk?
  11. Why did Abdel Malik renovate the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and send an army at the same time against Mecca to destroy the Kaaba with catapults?
  12. Why did Abdel Malik call people to pilgrim to Jerusalem and away from Mecca as per some historians?
  13. Why did the Caliph Suleyman  as late as 717 A.D. show confusion in whether it was Mecca or Jerusalem that the pilgrimage should be conducted to? (see source)
  14. Why does the prophecy associated with Israel’s 2nd rising speak of their defeat by the retaking of the ‘Temple’? Is Israel planning to occupy Mecca any time in the future? Or, is God speaking of His Temple in Jerusalem that they have already occupied during the 1967 war?
  15. Why is the ‘kaaba’ of Mecca located at the base of a valley where it is prone to flash floods? Is this in-line with the monotheistic purpose of providing a sanctuary for the pilgrims, or, is it related to the pagan practices of Arabia as found at other such sites in the Negev?
  16. Why do pilgrims in Mecca circle around the cube 7 times, as well as running between two hills 7 times? Does this seem to be an act associated with God’s system where He asks us to ‘think’ and ‘reason’, or, is it more associated with the empty pagan rituals of the time?

Answering these questions may lead you on the journey that needs to be taken about now...

Or, you may simply continue on the same path you found your parents and peers upon.

Worshippers giving their backs to the Temple/Shrine first raised by Abraham

Perhaps it is time to once again walk in the footsteps of our Patriarch Abraham by calling for the great pilgrimage and assembling mankind to honor the blessings of the Lord… 

“And call out to mankind with the Pilgrimage, they will come to you walking and on every transport, they will come from every deep enclosure. So that they may witness benefits for themselves and recall God’s name in the appointed days over what He has provided for them of the animal livestock. So eat from it and feed the needy and the poor. Then let them complete their duties and fulfill their vows, and let them partake at the ancient Sanctuary.” (Qur'an 22:27-29)



Written for www.free-minds.org